越南拥抱老对手

Vietnam Embraces an Old Enemy

越南拥抱老对手

By ALBERT R. HUNT | BLOOMBERG NEWS
Published: August 28, 2011

文:阿尔伯特·亨特 | 彭博社
2011年8月28日

HANOI — Pham Binh Minh, whose father fought to force the United States out of Vietnam, is working fervently to elevate the interest and involvement of his country’s former enemy.

河内消息——范平明,他的父亲当年曾经为了把美军赶出越南而战,而他今天却在为了推进越南的利益与越美双边关系而不懈努力。

Vietnam wants a U.S. presence for economic reasons and as a balance to China, the regional superpower. Mr. Minh is the new foreign minister; his father was part of Ho Chi Minh’s Communist regime during the bitter conflict of the 1960s and 1970s; later, he was foreign minister when Vietnam clashed with China.

越南出于经济的原因,同时也考虑与区域性超级大国中国的平衡,渴望与美国发展合作。范平明先生是越南的新外长,他的父亲是1960-1970年代越美战争中胡志明政权的一分子(阮基石,@Michae1S注)。后来,他的父亲在中越战争期间担任越南外长,

“One cannot imagine how fast the relationship between the United States and Vietnam has developed,” Mr. Minh, 52, said in Hanoi.

“人们无法想象美越关系的发展有多神速。”52岁的范平明在河内说。

“After 16 years of normalization, we’ve come to the stage where we’ve developed the relationship in nearly all aspects.”

“经过16年的正常化进程,我们终于走到了今天,我们在方方面面都建立了关系。”

While the United States hasn’t fully erased the pain of that war, the Vietnamese, who suffered far more, have embraced their old adversary.

在美国还未完全忘却战争的创伤,而越南则承受得更多的时候,两个宿敌拥抱在一起。

Economic ties between the nations are growing; the United States is the largest importer of Vietnamese goods. There are regular military contacts, and this month the two countries signed their first defense pact regarding military medicine. Last year, Vietnamese officers observed a U.S. military operation aboard a destroyer, the John S. McCain, named after two admirals, the father and grandfather of Senator John McCain, Republican of Arizona, who was a prisoner of war in Hanoi for six years.

两国间的经济往来在增长;美国是越南出口商品的最大买家。双方建立了正式的军事关系,这个月,双方签署了关于军事医疗的首份防务条约。去年,越南官员登上了美军的以现任亚利桑那州参议员约翰·麦凯恩的祖父小约翰·S·麦凯恩上将及其父亲海军上将老约翰·S·麦凯恩的名字命名的约翰·S·麦凯恩号驱逐舰,观看了美军的军事演习。越战期间,麦凯恩参议员在河内被关了6个月监狱。(麦凯恩驾驶的A4天鹰战斗机被越南仔击落被俘,在战俘营受尽折磨。@Michae1S注。)

Now, the foreign minister said, the two countries are discussing upgrading their strategic relationship to “a new level.” That, he declared, would be “good for the stability of the region,” in accord with Vietnam’s “multilateral” approach.

今天,外长说,美越双方正在讨论让双方的战略关系“跨上新台阶”。他宣布,这将“有利于地区稳定”,根据越南的“多边化”进程。

None of this, the top Vietnamese diplomat insisted, is intended to counter China. Still, talk of multilateralism and encouraging the U.S. role in the stability of the region isn’t appreciated by the Beijing regime.

越南外长坚持,这一切都不是为了与中国对抗。诚然,越南谈论“多边主义”和推动美国在地区稳定中的角色都不是北京政权所欢迎的。

Vietnam has a long history of conflict with China; the most recent outbreak was in 1979, when it turned back a cross-border incursion. The Vietnamese know China is a superpower that isn’t going away and prefer to have good relations with the big guy next door.

越南与中国的冲突有悠久的历史;最近一次爆发是在1979年,双方发生了跨越边境的战争。越南人知道中国是一个无法甩开的超级大国,因此希望与这个家门口的大国搞好关系。

Nevertheless, there are tensions, particularly over territory in the South China Sea. Recently, there have been public protests in Vietnam against China, though the Hanoi government wants these to stop, fearing that nationalistic fervor could spiral out of control.

然而,两国关系紧张,尤其是在南海领土争端上。最近越南街头爆发了反华的公开抗议,尽管河内政府希望抗议平息,因为担心国家主义情绪不断升温最终失去控制。

Common interests aside, the relationship with the United States is complicated.

在共同利益方面,越南与美国的关系也十分复杂。

Vietnam isn’t sure that the United States is committed to Asia for the long run, and officials privately complain that the region is a low priority for Washington. In a one-hour interview with Charlie Rose, an American television host, that was broadcast July 21, President Barack Obama’s national security adviser, Thomas E. Donilon, spoke at length about China, but never mentioned Vietnam.

越南无法确定美国是否有经营亚洲的长远打算,一些官员私下抱怨华盛顿政府以低优先级对待这一地区。在7月21号播出的美国电视节目主持人查理·罗斯对奥巴马的国家安全顾问托马斯·E·丹尼龙的一个小时的电视采访中,后者以很长的篇幅谈论中国,但完全没有提到越南。

Mr. Minh said he’d like “more consistency” in U.S. policy, which should “pay more attention” to Southeast Asia. More troubling is the continuing friction over Vietnamese policies on human and political rights.

范平明说他期待“更一致”的美国政策,也就是说希望美国“更加关注”东南亚事务。而更多的麻烦则来自越南在人权和政治权利方面政策的长期摩擦。

Progress has been made, especially in the area of religious freedom: Senator Jim Webb, Democrat of Virginia and a Vietnam veteran, noted during a visit to Hanoi the other day that when he first attended a Catholic service in Vietnam 20 years ago there were a handful of worshipers; a few years ago, there were 2,000 people at a Christmas Mass he attended. Still, a few dozen dissidents have been jailed over the past several years, and crackdowns on the news media are routine.

但还是有很多成绩,尤其在宗教自由方面:越战老兵、弗吉尼亚州民主党参议员吉姆·韦伯提起,20年前他首次在河内参加一个天主教仪式,只有少有的几个信徒;而几年前,当他在越南参加一个圣诞弥撒时候,有超过2000人参加。同时,过去的这几年中,越南仍然关押着几十名异议人士,而对新媒体的镇压也司空见惯。

The record is better than China’s. The realpolitik, however, is that with about 90 million people and a gross domestic product of $102 billion, Vietnam is treated differently than the colossus China.

但这个情况比中国好。就现实政治来说,拥有9000万人口和1020亿美金GDP的越南,与身边的巨人中国有着不同的方式。

Yet U.S. policy makers, who worry about the aggressiveness of an increasingly confident China, want deeper alliances with Vietnam. They look to a younger generation epitomized by Foreign Minister Minh, who remembers that as a teenager he would dash “to the shelters when the bombs were dropped.” As an adult, he received a graduate degree at Tufts University’s Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy in Massachusetts and spent several years at the United Nations in New York and at the Vietnamese Embassy in Washington.

因此,考虑到自信心不断膨胀的中国可能的侵略,美国的决策者们想与越南建立更深层次的联盟关系,因此他们把目光投向新一代越南的典范——外长范平明。范平明还记得,在他的少年时代,当敌机投弹的时候,他必须猛冲进防空洞。在他成年以后,他在麻省塔夫茨大学弗莱彻外交与法学院取得了研究生学位,并在纽约的联合国和华盛顿的越南大使馆工作过几年。

The depth of the association in the years ahead depends on the evolution of Vietnam’s economic, legal and political system. There have been striking gains since the Communists opened the system to private enterprise more than two decades ago. Per capita income is about $1,200, almost 10 times what it was more than a quarter century ago; the country has fully joined the global economic community. U.S. foreign investment is $10 billion, small but growing rapidly. Companies like Intel and Chevron are making major investments.

(美越)在此前几年合作的深度取决于越南经济、法律和政治体制的发展情况。自从越南共产党在20几年前向私人企业开放市场起来,创造了惊人的利益。目前越南人均收入1200美金,几乎是25年前的10倍,越南已经完全的加入了全球经济体系。来自美国的外资投资有100亿美金,份额不大,但是增长极快。Intel和雪佛龙是主要的投资者。

The economy, however, is still driven largely by inexpensive labor. The Communist Party bureaucracy stifles the entrepreneurial spirit. Corruption is rampant. Though he said that it was a “top priority” of the regime, Mr. Minh admitted that reducing corruption “is hard.”

尽管如此,越南经济还是依靠廉价的劳动力获得增长。共产党的官僚主义扼杀了创业精神,腐败异常猖獗。尽管范平明说反腐败是政府的最高任务,但他也承认这“很困难”。

Paradoxes persist: Internet use per capita is among the highest in the region and the illiteracy rate is relatively low; yet the educational system is inferior.

越南还存在一个奇怪现象:尽管教育系统的水平不高,但该国有着该地区最高的internet使用率和相对较低的文盲率。

One of the few jewels is the small public-policy center based in Ho Chi Minh City that is affiliated with Harvard University’s John F. Kennedy School of Government. This is part of Harvard’s Vietnam program, directed by Tom Vallely, a veteran who has spent much of his life since the war trying to improve U.S.-Vietnam relations.

一个值得称道的地方是胡志明市的隶属于哈佛大学约翰·F·肯尼迪政治学院小型公共政策中心。这是哈佛大学越南项目的一部分,由Tom Vallely领导。Tom是越战老兵,自从战后他就把他一生的大部分时间花在了改善美越关系上。

A few years ago, the center published a study on the challenges facing Vietnam. It concluded that the hallmarks of the successful East Asian economies of Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan — transparency, little corruption, first-class health and education systems and a viable legal structure — all are lacking in Vietnam.

几年前,这个中心发布了一项越南面临的挑战的研究。这项研究得出了以下的结论:东亚经济体成功的典范新加坡、韩国和台湾所依靠的透明、无腐败、一流的公共健康和教育系统和可行的法律架构,在越南都不存在。

“Countries that compete on the basis of cheap labor cannot, by definition, move beyond lower-income status,” it said.

“依靠廉价劳动力为基础进行竞争的国家,无法摆脱低收入的状态。”研究指出。

Younger leaders like the foreign minister face daunting challenges.

像越南外长这样的新一代越南领导人面临着令人沮丧的严峻挑战。

Among the biggest: walking the delicate line between maintaining decent relations with the superpower next door and strengthening ties with Washington; and dramatically curbing corruption and changing an educational system the Harvard study described as abysmal.

在大国间跳舞:在与家门口的超级大国保持体面的关系和加强与华盛顿的合作之间保持微妙的平衡,并且要突然地抑制腐败和改善教育系统,哈佛大学的研究把这些视为地狱般的任务。

That raises an interesting possibility, one the foreign minister said he would welcome: Harvard, the institution that produced many of the architects of the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, could take the lead in creating a first-class Vietnamese university.

这增加了一种有趣的可能性,如越南外长说的:哈佛大学这所在让美国陷入越南战争一事上建树颇丰的学校,可以带头帮越南建立一所一流的大学。

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